Industrial Pumps

What makes a pump?

Overall speaking, a pump, by definition, is equipment that moves fluids-state substance by its mechanical action. Classically, pumps can be categorized into three major types based on the method those pumps exploited to move the target fluids. There are direct lift pump, displacement pump, and gravity pump. Pumps are typically operated by either typically reciprocating or rotary mechanism, and consume energy to perform mechanical work moving the fluid-like substance. In practical, mechanical pumps can also be submerged in the fluid in which they are pumping or be placed external to the fluid.

Types of Industrial Pumps

Mechanical pumps

In practical, mechanical pumps can also be submerged in the fluid in which they are pumping or be placed external to the fluid. Pumps can be categorized by their method of displacement into positive displacement pumps, impulse pumps, velocity pumps, gravity pumps, steam pumps, and valve-less pumps. Besides, there are two basic types of pumps, that is, positive displacement and centrifugal. While broadly speaking, pumps can operate through many power (energy) sources, such as manpower’s’ manual operation, electricity, engines, or even wind power. Those energy sources can be a wide variety of equipment which comes in any sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps for waterworks, or ordinary size industrial pump for machine tool coolant transmission and other operation.

Industrial pumps

In the industry, the custom industrial pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from conventional wells, aquarium filtering duty, pond filtering tasks, in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers. In the machine tool sectors, pumps are used to move cutting liquids, coolants, etc. in the medical industry, pumps are used for biochemical processes in developing and manufacturing medicine, and as artificial replacements for body parts, in particular the artificial heart and penile prosthesis. In addition, the number of impellers determines decisively the way the pump works and the strength for liquid moving. If, for example, there is a pump that contains only one revolving impeller, it is called a single-stage pump. If a pump contains two or more revolving impellers, it is called a double- or multi-stage pump, based on the users’ preference.

Other innovations

In the meantime, in the application of biology sector, many different types of chemical and biomechanical pumps have evolved; BIOMIMICRY is sometimes used in the development of new types of mechanical pumps. Just like in the early days people tried to study birds in order to enable human flight. With that kind of effort, though not always successful, there are numerous of bio-mimicry cases that help elevating scientific studies for the good for human kind.

What is positive displacement?

The categorization introduced above is a general classification, and a positive displacement pump makes a fluid move by trapping a fixed amount and forcing that trapped volume of liquid into the discharge pipe. Usually, some positive displacement pumps use an expanding cavity on the suction side, and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. With the method, liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge when the cavity collapses. The volume is constant through each cycle of operation during the whole process.

Safety issue

It is noteworthy that, unlike centrifugal pumps, a positive displacement pump can produce the same flow at a given speed no matter what the discharge pressure. As a result, positive displacement pumps are constant flow machines. At the same time, however, a slight increase in internal leakage as the pressure increases prevents a truly constant flow rate. That is to say, a positive displacement pump must not operate against a closed valve on the discharge side of the pump, as it has no shutoff head like centrifugal pumps. Therefore, positive displacement pumps operating against a closed discharge valve continue to produce flow and the pressure in the discharge line increases until the line bursts, the pump is severely damaged.

Safety concern

Today, for safety concern, a relief or safety valve on the discharge side of the positive displacement pump is thus necessary, and both manufacturers of pump and users in the industry shall be careful of this issue. The relief valve can be either internal or external. Pump manufacturers normally have the option to supply internal relief or safety valves. Industry today is changing rapidly and in both automation and 3C consumable electric sectors, manufacturers that need to proceed machining tasks in the 21st century tend to purchase machining centers with robotic arm accessories for a wider application. Even if the machine tools are the most fundamental capital goods for manufacturers and play the critical role that determines the final output of the end products, components such as bearing, robotic arm or other automation equipment still play an important but independent role in the accessories market and the relevant industrial sectors.

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